Job search of men and women on long-term social welfare | Munich Center for the Economics of Aging - MEA


Job search of men and women on long-term social welfare



The purpose of this paper is to examine the job search probability in welfare receipt over time for men and women in different household constellations, because it is a major concern in welfare states that long-term receipt is driven by recipients’ low job search activity.


The paper analyses the likelihood to search for a job for a sample of unemployed recipients of means-tested welfare benefits in Germany. Data basis is the panel study “Labour Market and Social Security” (PASS), and growth curve models are applied in this study.


Job search probability differs by household constellation and gender directly after the onset of welfare receipt; differences are less distinct for changes in job search probability over time. Only welfare recipients without children show a pronounced decline in search probability.

Practical implications

There is no evidence that welfare recipients’ overall cease to search for a job by and by. Financial incentives alone cannot stimulate the job search of welfare recipients, when the diverse motives of male and female recipients in various household constellations are not considered as well.


This paper is the first to study the long-term development in the job search probability and gender differences by household constellations.


Brigitte Schels


Arne Bethmann

S. 224-241
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy